There are several ways of making commercial soaps. The method which can be used depends on the facilities available to the manufacturer or the type of soap one desires to make. Firstly one has to prepare the basic soap and then the soap can be colored, perfumed, shaped, packaged, perfumed, and much more.
Some of the processes which can be used are:
Full Boiled Process:
One of the most common methods used in the process of soap making is the full boiled method. This process has several processes and is easy to be followed:
Firstly one has to gather large amount of lye and combine it with alkali. Any kind of vegetable oil or animal oil can be used. Though the most common oils used by the manufacturers are olive, coconut, and palm oils, but many soap makers prefer many other oils. Heat is applied on the mixture of oils and lye and then they are thoroughly mixed until the oil is properly saponified.
Secondly some series of steps are followed to remove the impurities if any. Then the excess lye present is removed and separated outand the glycerine which is produced during the saponification process is recovered. These steps are commonly called changes and saltwater solution is added to the soap mixture in thus process. This process helps in removing the excess lye and glycerine from the mixture to make the process a proper one. Once separated, the bottom liquid is drained off and the glycerin recovered from it. There may be three or four changes before the soap is fully saponified and ready.
Semi Boiled Process
The semi boiled process is fairly simple and is not much time consuming. The desired amount of oil is mixed with the exact amount of lye and a proper saponification is carried out. The lye and oils are mixed properly and the external heat is applied until the full saponification process is completed. In this process the glycerine is not removed and instead it is left in the soap. This is the most common when the soap is going to be made into a transparent soap. Much handmade soap is made by the semi boiled process and this process is sometimes referred to as the hot process. When old people used to make soaps at home they used the semi boiled process.
Glycerin Removal Method
In many cases the oils are processed to separate the glycerine and fatty acids prior to soap making. The glycerine gets purified and then sold elsewhere. Only the fatty acids are used soapmaking procedure. Then the lye is added to the fatty acid and the resultant is soap, which does not contain any glycerin.
All of the processes listed above are commercial processes and help in making soaps in batches. But there is also a process of making soap by a continuous method. This process is simply an ongoing method and the soap produced the saponification continuously occurs in it. The oil and lye are continuously added in this process and the finished soap is drawn off in a steady stream. This process was developed by one of the largest manufacturers of soaps and is now allowed to be used by everyone.
Soap Base Processing
When completes making the base soap by any of the above methods after that the soap can be processed in the final form and then packaged for sale. Sometimes this is done in a factory where the soap is manufactured and sometimes just the soap base is produced and the final steps are completed by any other party.
The fillers designed to add weight and bulk to the soap but no cleansing or cosmetic benefit can be added to the soap base. Some builders can be added to the soap base which is particularly designed for the benefit of the soap. Synthetic detergents are also added to the gar soaps and also many colorants, perfumes and other fillers can be added into the soap base.
Once the additional ingredient is added to the soaps then it can be shaped into the final form. In olden times this was just considered to be cutting the soap into bars. Nowadays, however, most soaps are milled into fine ribbons, mixed with colorants, perfumes and additives and then pressed into a unique shape, sometimes with a logo imprinted on them
Sometimes transparent soaps are also referred to as the glycerine soaps, which is made by adding alcohol to the soap as it helps in making it clear the type of oils used.
The soap powders which are not seen too much in the modern times were made by spraying liquid soap out of a very fine sprayer nozzle about three stories high. When the tiny particles of soap hardened on the way down, piled up at the bottom as powdered soap.
Many of the products used in the day to day life contain commercially produced soaps. Shampoo, toothpaste, pharmaceuticals, cleaning tablets, and much more are some of the day to day products which are made commercially and people use them in their daily life.